Selected Projects

Art Production Fund, New York; Cooper Square Hotel Art Wall (A collaborative project by Nic 1, Vizie, Joyce Pensato and Shinique Smith), November 2009

Saltworks Gallery, Atlanta; Elsewhere, a multi-media group exhibition curated by Shinique Smith, April 25-June 6, 2009

The Margulies Collection at the Warehouse, Miami; Hope Blossoms – An Art Happening (benefit for The Sundari Foundation and its Lotus House initiative), October 16, 2009

The Proposition, New York; cotton candy on a rainy day, curated by Shinique Smith, November 2-December 16, 2006 (catalogue)

Laundromat Project, Brooklyn; So, Fresh & So, Clean, art book created by Shinique Smith distributed to patrons of local laundromats, October-November 2006


Shinique Smith

1971, born in Baltimore MD; lives and works in Brooklyn NY



The Maryland Institute College of Art; MFA, 2003

Tufts University & The School of the Museum of Fine Arts; MAT, 2000

The Maryland Institute College of Art; BFA, 1992


Selected Solo Exhibitions


Shinique Smith, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA

Arcadian Clusters, Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, Michigan State University, Michigan



Shinique Smith: Kaleidoscopic, David Castillo Gallery, Miami, Florida

Shinique Smith: Firsthand , Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, CA

Bold as Love, James Cohan Gallery, New York, NY 



Shinique Smith: To the Ocean of Everyone Else, Brand New Gallery, Milan, Italy

Shinique Smith: Enchantment, Savannah College of Art and Design (SCAD), Pinnacle Gallery, Savannah, GA, Trois Gallery, Atlanta, GA,

Shinique Smith: New Degree of Love, Galerie Zidoun, Luxembourg, Belgium



Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art (SECCA), Winston-Salem, NC; Shinique Smith, curated by Steven Matijcio, November 12-February 13, 2011

Museum of Contemporary Art, North Miami, Miami FL; Shinique Smith: Menagerie, September 16-

November 19 (continuing in 2011 at Madison Museum of Contemporary Art, Madison WI)

Yvon Lambert, Paris; Shinique Smith: No Words, April 2-May 12

Illinois State University Galleries, College of Fine Arts, Normal IL; Shinique Smith: My Heart Is My Hand, February 16-March 28



Yvon Lambert, New York; Ten Times Myself, May 21-July 31

Studio Museum in Harlem, New York; Shinique Smith: Like it Like that, April 2-June 28



Yvon Lambert, London; Good Knot, November 22-December 20

Saltworks Gallery, Atlanta; Shinique Smith: Torch Songs, April 19-May 30



Moti Hasson Gallery, New York; Shinique Smith: All Purpose, November 15-December 29 (catalogue)

Franklin Art Works, Minneapolis; Shinique Smith: Lost & Found, June 9-July 29

Skestos Gabriele Gallery, Chicago; Shinique Smith: Open Strings, March 9-April 7



Cuchifritos Gallery (a project of Artists Alliance Inc.), New York; Shinique Smith: No dust, no stain, October 7-November 11



The Proposition, New York; Overstock, December 8-January 21, 2006 (essay by Greg Tate)

Boulder Museum of Contemporary Art, Boulder CO; FULL-ON!, June 24-September 3



The Creative Alliance, Baltimore; Crossroads, September-October

Scola dei Tiraoro e Battioro, Venice, Italy; manifestations, June 1-28 (catalogue)


Selected Group Exhibitions


Dark Flow Lurking , David Castillo Gallery, Miami, FL

Stretching the Limits: Fibers in Contemporary Painting , Savannah College of Art & Design, Savannah, GA

OFF THE WALL: Established Contemporary, Contemporary Wing, Washington DC

Cultural Transference, Elizabeth Foundation for the Art (EFA) Project Space, New York, NY

Everyday Abstract-Abstract Everyday, James Cohan Gallery, New York, NY

30 Americans, organized by the Rubell Family Collection, Miami, Chrysler Museum of Art, Norfolk, VA

Flights from Wonder: Christopher Chiappa, Liz Craft, Martha Friedman, FriendsWithYou, Jon Pylypchuk, Carolyn Salas, Mindy Shapero, Shinique Smith, and Pheobe Washburn, Santa Barbara Contemporary Arts Museum, CA



The Bearden Project, Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, NY

30 Americans, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington DC, North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, NC; organized by the Rubell Family Collection, Miami, FL

Don’t Get High On Your Own Supply, David Castillo Gallery, Miami, FL

Trash, The New Children’s Museum, San Diego, CA

Given a Miniscule Ledge, organized by Liz Parks, The Norwood Club, New York, NY

Play Time, Yvon Lambert, New York, NY

Converging Voices, Transforming Dialogue: Selections from the Elliot and Kimberly Perry Collection, Texas Southern University Museum, Houston, TX

Wrong Place for the Right People, Bullet Space, New York, NY

The February Show, curated by Jun Lee and Heather Hart, Ogilvy Chocolate Factory, New York, NY

Stargazers: Elizabeth Catlett in Conversation with 21 Contemporary Artists, curated by Isolde Brielmaier, Bronx Museum, NY



THREADS: Textiles and Fiber in the Works of African American Artists, curated by Lowery Stokes Sims, EK Projects, Beijing, China

Personal Freedom, curated by Johannes Van Der Beek, Portugal Arte 10, Lisbon, Portugal

At Home / Not At Home: Works From The Collection of Martin and Rebecca Eisenberg, curated by Matthew Higgs, Center for Curatorial Studies and Art in Contemporary Culture, Hessel Museum of Art, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY

Reflection, Nathan Bernstein Gallery, New York, NY



Brooklyn Museum, Extended Family: Contemporary Connections, August-Summer 2010

Denver Art Museum, Denver; Embrace!, November 14-April 4, 2010 (catalogue)

Studio Museum in Harlem, New York; 30 Seconds off an Inch, November 12-March 14, 2010 (catalogue)

Brooklyn Academy of Music, Brooklyn, Next Wave Art, curated by Dan Cameron, October 3-December 20

Marianne Boesky Gallery, New York, Your Gold Teeth II, curated by Todd Levin, June 19-August 15



Rubell Family Collection, Miami; 30 Americans, December 3-May 30, 2009 (catalogue)

Collette Blanchard Gallery, New York; Belle Du Jour, curated by Chrissy Crawford, October 16-November 11

Deutsche Guggenheim, Berlin; Freeway Balconies, curated by Collier Schorr, July 5-October 5 (catalogue)

Yvon Lambert, Paris; Ready Made, June 27-September 6

The Fields Sculpture Park, Omi International Art Center, Ghent NY; Into The Trees, curated by Lilly Wei and Amy Lipton, June 21-November 30

Yvon Lambert, New York; The Stranger, June 19-July 31

Socrates Sculpture Park, Long Island City NY; Waste Not, Want Not, curated by Robyn Donohue with Alyson Baker and Marichris Ty, May 4-August 3

Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco; The Way That We Rhyme: Women, Art & Politics, curated by Berin Golonu, March 29-June 29 (catalogue)

National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC; RECOGNIZE! Hip Hop and Contemporary Portraiture, curated by Brandon Brame Fortune and Frank H. Goodyear III with guest curator Jobyl A. Boone, February 8-October 26 (catalogue)

Contemporary Arts Center New Orleans; Something from Nothing, curated by Dan Cameron, January 18-March 23



The New Museum, New York; Unmonumental: The Object in the 21st Century, curated by Richard Flood, Laura Hoptman and Massimiliano Gioni, December 1-March 23, 2008 (catalogue)

Branch Gallery, Durham NC; Body Politic: Casey Cook, Wangechi Mutu, Shinique Smith, Tory Wright, November 8-December 22

Yvon Lambert, New York; Ready-Made, July 10-August 21

The Luggage Store, San Francisco; My Love is a ‘187, February 9-March 17

Moti Hasson Gallery, New York; Beyond the Pale, January 18-February 17

Vox Populi, Philadelphia; Future Nomad, curated by Sara Reisman, January 5-28



P.S.1 Contemporary Art Center, New York; Altered, Stitched and Gathered, December 14-January 22, 2007

Westport Arts Center, Westport CT; Allegories of Displacement, curated by Michèle C. Cone, September 15-October 25 (catalogue)

Shore Institute of the Contemporary Arts, Long Branch NJ, Stuff It!, Curated by Douglas Ferrari, September1-October 6

Caren Golden Fine Arts, New York; Material Abuse, June 29-August 4

Skestos Gabriele Gallery, Chicago; Paper: First anniversary group exhibition, June 9-July 29

House of Campari, New York; 25 Bold Moves, curated by Simon Watson and Craig Hensela, May 5-21 (catalogue)

Roebling Hall, Williamsburg (Brooklyn), New York; I Feel You, curated by Dean Daderko, March 2-April 9

Longwood Art Gallery, Hostos Community College, Bronx NY; Do You Think I’m Disco, curated by Edwin Ramoran, January 14-March 18



Studio Museum in Harlem, New York; Frequency, curated by Thelma Golden and Christine Y. Kim, November 9-March 12, 2006 (catalogue)

Steve Turner Contemporary, Los Angeles; Neovernacular, curated by Franklin Sirmans, November 5-December 17

Ethan Cohen Fine Arts, New York; d’Afrique, d’Asie, curated by Kóan Jeff Baysa, November 17-December 14

9th International Istanbul Biennial, Istanbul Turkey, Two Continents and Beyond: Waterways, curated by Renee Vara and Asli Sümer, October 18-28

Gallery 400, College of Architecture and the Arts,
 University of Illinois at Chicago; Drawn Out, curated by Lorelei Stewart, June 21-August 6

Comunidad De Madrid, El Consejeria De Cultura Y Deportes, Madrid; Unveiling The Invisible: Contemporary Video Art (Desvelar Lo Invisible: Videocreacion Contemporanea), April 21-June 5 (catalogue)

Rush Arts Gallery, New York; Recess: Images & Objects in Formation, curated by Derrick Adams, March 31-May 28

Gallery Imperato, Baltimore; Kate MacKinnon & Shinique Smith: Selected Works, March 12-April 24

The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 1926 Exhibition Studies Space, Chicago; Gimme Some  of That: Approprirating Feminist Strategies, curated by Sara Ferguson and Gretchen Holmes, February 18-March 13 (catalogue)

Studio Museum in Harlem, New York; African Queen, January 26-March 27

Hillwood Art Museum, C.W. Post Campus, Long Island University, Brookville NY; Tawkin’ New Yawk City Walls, Curated by John Fekner, January 18-April 9



Bronx River Art Center, New York; Word, curated by Paul Laster and Renee Riccardo, October 30-December 6

Art In General, New York; Re: Source, September 8-November 6

Triple Candie, New York; The Reality of Things, April-July 11

Studio Museum in Harlem, New York; Veni Vidi Video II, curated by Christine Y. Kim, April-July

Longwood Art Gallery, Bronx NY; CONVERSIONS, curated by Melissa A. Calderón, July 7-28

Samson Projects, Boston; Super Salon, March 23-May23



The Ludwig Museum for Contemporary Art, Budapest; !Upwardly Mobile 2, 
a collaborative project by Norman Beierle, Valentina Ferrarese, Hester Keijser, initially produced for  Manifesta 4, August

Museum of Modern Art, Frankfurt am Main; !Upwardly Mobile, 
a collaborative project by Norman Beierle, Valentina Ferrarese, Hester Keijser, initially produced for  Manifesta 4, August 11-18


Public Collections

The Brooklyn Museum of Art

The Denver Art Museum

The Los Angeles County Museum of Art

The Margulies Collection, Miami

The Rubell Family Collection, Miami

The Studio Museum in Harlem, New York

The Whitney Museum of American Art


Lectures, Panels & Teaching

Illinois State University School of Art, Visiting Artist Committee Lecture Series, February 14, 2010

Tyler School of Art,
Temple University, 
Philadelphia, PA; Critical Dialogues Lecture Series: Shinique Smith, hosted by Odili Donald Odita, 
February 8, 2010

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,
 Department of Art, Chapel Hill, NC; Hanes Visiting Artist Lecture Series, Cary Levine in conversation with Shinique Smith, February 26, 2010

Parsons School of Art and Design, New York, September 2009

Anderson Ranch Arts Center, Snowmass Village, CO; Evening with the Artists: Sergei Tsvetkov, Wendy Babcox, and Shinique Smith, June 30, 2009

Off the Walls: Rethinking the Artist’s Role in Museums, SVA & The Corning Museum, May 2009

The Art Institute of Chicago, April 2009

James Porter Colloquim, Howard University, Washington DC, April 2009

University of Oregon, Eugene OR, Winter 2009

National Portrait Gallery, Washington DC, October 2008

The Denver Art Museum, March 2008

Reinhart School of Sculpture, MFA Program, Maryland Institute College of Art, February 2008

Corcoran College of Art and Design, Washington DC, February 2008

Pratt Institute, Brooklyn NY, January 2008

Unmonumental panel discussion, The New Museum, New York, December 2007

The Headlands Center for the Arts, Sausalito CA, Summer 2007

Mount Royal School of Art, MFA Program, Maryland Institute College of Art, March 2007

Shinique Smith & Nicole Cherubini, Henry Street Settlement, New York, February 2006

Boulder Museum of Contemporary Art, Boulder CO, June 2005

Residencies, Fellowships & Grants

Joan Mitchell Foundation, Fellowship, 2008

New York Foundation for the Arts, Gregory Millard Fellowship in Sculpture, 2007

The Headlands Center for the Arts, Artist-in-Residence, 2007

Aljira Center for Contemporary Art, Fellowship, 2005

Henry Street Settlement, Artist-in-Residence, 2005

Lower Manhattan Cultural Council, Studio Residency, 2003

Skowhegan School of Painting & Sculpture, Fellowship, 2003

Vermont Studio Center, Fellowship. 2002

Institute for Cultural Enterprise, Exhibition Grant, 2002

Scuola Di Grafica (Venice, Italy), Artist-in-Residence, 2000





Embrace!, Denver Art Museum, November 2009 (catalogue)

30 Seconds Off an Inch, Studio Museum in Harlem, Thelma Golden (author), group exhibition of 100 works by 42 artists curated by Naomi Beckwith, June 2009 (catalogue)

30 Americans, The Rubell Family Collection, Franklin Sirmans, Glenn Ligon, Robert Hobbs and Michele Wallace, August 2008 (catalogue)

The Way That We Rhyme: Women, Art & Politics, Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco, curated by Berin Golonu, 2008 (catalogue)

Unmonumental: The Object in the 21st Century, The New Museum and Phaidon Press, Richard Flood, Laura Hoptman, Massimiliano Gioni, and Trevor Smith, December 2007 (catalogue)

RECOGNIZE! Hip Hop and Contemporary Portraiture, National Portrait Gallery, Brandon Brame Fortune, Frank H. Goodyear III and Jobyl A. Boone, February 2008 (catalogue)

Crossing the Line African American Artists in the Jacqueline Bradley and Clarence Otis, Jr. Collection, Rollins College, E. Luanne McKinnon (Editor), Jacqueline Bradley (Introduction), Jr. Clarence Otis (Introduction), Franklin Sirmans (Preface), 2007 (catalogue)

Allegories of Displacement, Westport Arts Center, curated by Michèle C. Cone, September 2006 (catalogue)

25 Bold Moves: An Exhibition of Contemporary Art, House of Campari, May 2005 (catalogue)

frequency, The Studio Museum, Thelma Golden, Franklin Sirmans, and Malik Gaines, January 2005 (catalogue)

Desvelar lo invisible: videocreacion contemporanea | Unveiling The Invisible: Contemporary Video Art, Comunidad de Madrid, Victòria Combalia and Juan Carlos Rego, 2005 (catalogue)

Gimme Some of That: Appropriating Feminist Strategies, The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 1926 Exhibition Studies Space, Chicago, curated by Sara Ferguson and Gretchen Holmes, 2005 (catalogue)

Tawkin’ New Yawk City Walls, Hillwood Art Museum, Brookville NY, curated by John Fekner, 2005 (catalogue)

SHINIQUE AMIE SMITH manifestations, curated by Sara Rossi, Scola dei Tiraoro e Battioro, Venice, Italy, June 2002 (catalogue)


Selected Bibliography


Highlands Ranch Herald, Lifestyles Section, Last Weekend To See: Don’t Miss This Exhibit, March 30, 2010 (reproduction)

Haven Thompson, Art / Creative Chic, W Magazine, April 2010, p 92 (reproduction)

Yolanda Sangweni,, > Culture, 10 Female African American Artists To Know, January 27, 2010 (reproduction)

Roberta Smith, Make Room for Video, Performance and Paint, The New York Times, January 3, 2010, pp AR23-24 (and in online edition at

Alex Sudalnik, Shinique Smith: Bound Together, FiberARTS, January/February 2010, p 30 (reproduction)

Barbara Pollack, Clothes Connections, ARTnews, January 2010, pp 76-81 (reproductions)



Jody B. Cutler, A Lineage is Not a Category, The International Review of African American Art, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2009 pp 38-42 (reproductions)

Roberta Smith, A Beating Heart of Social Import (Review, 30 Seconds Off an Inch at The Studio Museum in Harlem), The New York Times, December 11, 2009, pp C29, C32

Michèle C. Cone, Shinique Smith – Yvon Lambert (review), Art in America, October 2009 (reproduction)

John Haber, Conceptual Arts in the Plural (Review: 30 Seconds off an Inch),, October 16, 2009

Daniel Chang, Hope Blossoms: About 30 artists will assemble to sing, dance, paint, drum – and help women and children in need, The Miami Herald, October 11, 2009

Cameron Shaw, Critic’s Picks – Shinique Smith – Yvon Lambert,, July 2009 (reproduction)

Art: Galleries-Chelsea – Shinique Smith, The New Yorker, June 29, 2009, pp 13-14

Karen Rosenberg, Shinique Smith – Ten Times Myself (review), The New York Times, June 5, 2009

Lily Wei, Ten Times Myself, Art in America, June 2009

Brian Keith Jackson, New York Magazine, Culture Section, June 2009

Rebekah Drysdale, Shinique Smith,, May 29, 2009 (reproductions)

The New York Times Style Magazine, cover art, Spring 2009, cover and pp 10,77 (reproductions)

School of the Art Institute of Chicago Newsletter, Events+Disruptions, Spring 2009, cover and pp 8-9 (reproductions)

Shinique Smith: Like it Like That, The Studio Museum in Harlem Magazine, Spring 2009 (reproductions)

Peter Van Rhoon, Art, Reality and a Bag, Code, Issue 14, Spring 2009, pp 27-33 (reproduction)

Nuit Banai, Project Space: Shinique Smith – Studio Museum in Harlem (review), Time Out New York, Issue No. 701, March 5-11, 2009 (reproduction)

New York Artists Dictionary – Shinique Smith, Flash Art, Vol. XLII, No. 264, January-February 2009, p 81 (reproduction)

Howard Halle, Art: Medium Cool – Installation – Shinique Smith – Studio Museum in Harlem, Time Out New York, Issue 692, January 1-7, 2009, p 51



What’s Up, Project Space:Shinique Smith On View From November 12, The Studio Museum in Harlem Magazine, Fall-Winter, 2008-09 (reproductions)

Brian Keith Jackson, 30 Americans: American Vision, Giant, December/January (reproduction)

Silvia Cubina, On Contemporary Art, The Miami Herald, December 3, 2008, p 8E (reproduction)

Cheryl R. Riley, ART: On The Verge, Uptown, Issue 18, Winter 2008, pp 36-37 (reproduction)

Ericka Blount, Worth a Bundle: Interview with Shinique Smith, Baltimore Magazine, October 2008

Kymberly N. Pinder, Unbaled: An Interview with Shinique Smith, Art Journal, Summer 2008, pp 6-17 (reproductions)

Eleanor Heartney, Museums II – Make It New, Art in America, April 2008, pp 83-85 (reproduction)

Jeffreen M. Hayes, On The Cusp: Young Collectors, International Review of African American Art, Volume 22, Number 2, pp 24-29 (reproductions)

Glenn Adamson, When Craft Gets Sloppy, Crafts Magazine (UK), March/April 2008 (reproductions)

Blake Gopnik, Shinique Smith’s Street Art, Taking the High Road, The Washington Post, Style & Arts Section, March 16, 2008 (reproductions)

Black Is Beautiful, photographs by Barron Claiborne, styling by Emil Wibekin, Paper, Volume 24, Number 8, March 2008, pp 120-129

Michael O’Sullivan, Hip-Hop Artists Take Center Stage, The Washington Post, February 15, 2008, p 49



Goings on About Town: Art-Shinique Smith, The New Yorker, December 17, 2007, p 22

Vanessa Lau, W Blogs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, W, November 30, 2007

Kenya Hunt, Under the personal myth, Metro NY, Arts Section, Weekend, November 16-18, 2007 (reproduction)

Kathryn Harris (photographs by Art Gray), From the ground up, Sunset, September 2007 (reproduction)

Mary Abbe, Abstraction with Soul (review), Star Tribune, Scene Section-Art, June 21, 2007, p F10) (reproduction)

Headlands Center for the Arts Newsletter, Informal Economics: Shinique Smith & John Jota Leaños, Summer 2007, p 11 (reproduction)

Cecilia Muhlstein, Global Rifting, NY Arts Magazine, March/April 2007

Klaus Menziel, My Love is a 1987 (review), Percolator, March 2007

Jerry Saltz, Beyond The Pale, The Village Voice, February 1, 2007

Stephanie Murg, Moti Hasson…Beyond the Pale, Chelsea Now, February 2-8, 2007



Roberta Smith, Art Review: Menace, Glitter & Rock, The New York Times, December 29, 2006

Skowhegan Newsletter, Alumni News: Shinique Smith, 2006 (reproduction)

Benjamin Genocchio, Padded, Stuffed And Packing a Punch (review), The New York Times, September 10, 2006, p 20

Atlanticville, In The Arts: Not Just Sock Monkeys (review), September 8, 2006

Celia McGee (photographs by Douglas Friedman and styling by Lynn Nigro), Nancy Lane Chooses Art The Same Way She Leads Her Life: Without Fear, O At Home, September 2006, pp 118-123 (reproductions)

Sarah Valdez, Report from New York: Bling and Beyond, Art In America, April 2006 (reproduction)

Urbanite, eye to eye, April 2006, p 86 (reproduction)

Emily Hall, Shinique Smith – The Proposition (review), Artforum, March 2006

Melissa Gronlund, Frequency (review), Frieze, March 2006

Holland Cotter, Art in Review – Do You Think I’m Disco (review), The New York Times, February 3, 2006

Rebecca Spence, How Street It Is, ARTnews, Volume 105, Number 2, February 2006, pp 110-111 (reproduction)

Jeremy Kastner, Frequency (review), Artforum, January 2006, 217 (reproduction)



Roberta Smith, Where Issues of Black Identity Meet The Concerns of Every Artist (review), The New York Times, November 18, 2005, p E37

Elizabeth Marglin, Summer cycle at BMoCA a walk on the wild side (review), Boulder Daily Camera, July 24, 2005 (reproductions)

Renee Ater, Creating Their Own Image, African Arts, Summer 2005

Jessica Bowers, Office Politics, Baltimore City Paper, March 30, 2005

Helen A. Harrison, Random Acts Of Nature, and Youth (review), The New York Times, March 6, 2005, p LI9



Kehinde Wiley, Introducing… Shinique Smith, NYFA Interactive, Vol. 13, No.14., September 2004

Ken Johnson, The Reality of Things (review), The New York Times, June 18, 2004

LINK; a critical journal on the arts, Fall 2004



Jessica Dawson, African American Art, Forward & Backward, The Washington Post, Style Section, November 27, 2003, p C5

Blake Di Pastino, The Education of Shinique Smith, City Paper, Arts & Entertainment Section, April 2, 2003, pp 23-24 (reproduction)



Glenn McNatt, Artist adds elegance to hip-hop (review), The Baltimore Sun, September 13, 2002, p 10E

Laura Burns, Crossroads: New Work by Shinique Amie Smith (review), Radar, Volume 2, p 42 (reproduction)

Enzo Di Martino, Gli intimi “mandala” di Amie Smith (review), Il Gazzettino, Cultura & Spettacoli Section, June 19, 2002 (reproduction)

I magici mandala di Shinique Amie Smith (review), la Nuova, Cultura & Spettacoli Section, June 1, 2002 (reproduction)